Dispute Resolution - Alternative Dispute Resolution

See Chinese version below [中文版参阅下文]

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) refers to the various methods by which disputes are resolved outside the courtroom. Such methods include mediation (an independent third party is brought in to mediate a dispute) and arbitration (the dispute is referred to a third party for a binding decision).

In Ontario, the Rules of Civil Procedure mandate and regulate mediation in civil cases commenced in Toronto, Windsor and Ottawa. Mediation remains common in other parts of Ontario, and parties to a dispute will often agree to non-binding mediation by mutually selecting a mediator. Arbitration may be pursued on an ad hoc basis under a structure provided for in the local jurisdiction or under local statutory provisions.

Alternatively, arbitration may be conducted under the administrative and supervisory powers of one of the recognized international arbitration institutes, such as the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris, the London Court of International Arbitration or the American Arbitration Association. These bodies do not themselves render arbitration awards, but they do provide a measure of neutrality and an internationally recognized system of procedural rules.

One advantage of arbitration compared to domestic court procedure is the confidentiality of arbitration proceedings. The arbitration process is normally private; hearings are not public and written transcripts of proceedings are not generally available to the public. In addition, the arbitration process may be faster than the court system, and there is generally no right of appeal from an arbitration award. This may lead to disputes being resolved more quickly.

非诉讼纠纷解决机制

非诉讼纠纷解决机制(简称“ADR”)是指在法庭之外解决争议的各种机制。这种机制包括调解(一个独立第三方参与调解争议)和仲裁(将争议提交给中立第三方并作出有约束力的决定)。

在安大略省,《民事诉讼规则》要求凡是在多伦多市、温莎市和渥太华市提起的民事案件均需进行调解,并对之进行规范。调解在安大略省的其他地区仍然普遍,而且,纠纷当事方往往会同意通过双方选择的调解员进行不具约束力的调解。仲裁可以由专设、临时的仲裁庭依据地方司法管辖区或地方法律提供的架构进行。

另外,仲裁可以在像巴黎的国际商会的国际仲裁法院、伦敦国际仲裁法院或美国仲裁协会等公认的国际仲裁机构的管理及监督下进行。这些机构不进行仲裁裁决,但它们提供中立的措施和国际公认的程序规则制度。

仲裁与国内法院诉讼程序相比的优点之一是仲裁程序的机密性。仲裁程序通常是私密的;听证会并不公开,而且一般来说仲裁的书面文件不向公众提供。此外,仲裁程序可能会比法院系统更快,一般不存在对仲裁裁决的上诉权。纠纷因之可能得以更迅速地解决。

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